Mla Style Sheet 7th Edition Bibliography

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:07:19

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.         

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.  

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu."Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me."Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note: In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal,vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,  www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

URLs:

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

DOIs:

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses:

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9).

or

According to Edward W. Said, imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9).

Work Cited

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

 

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.

Keep track of the sources you use as you do your research and draft your paper. Make sure that you have all of the publication information for each source. It can be helpful to have a working bibliography as you go, with a backup of the computer file and/or a print-out. Although it is not needed for the Works Cited, it may also be helpful to keep a record of how you located each source, such as the call numbers of books and URLs of web sites.

BOOKS [5.5]


Books [5.5.1]

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Type of Material.

This is the basic format for a Works Cited entry.

Title

  • Take the title from the title page, not the cover.
  • The book title should be italicized.
  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word, last word, and all major words of the title and subtitle, including words that follow hyphens, e.g., English-Speaking.
  • The following terms should not be capitalized when they are in the middle of a title: articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet), prepositions (e.g., in, of, to, between, against), and the "to" in infinitives, e.g., How to Solve It. [3.6.1]

Publisher [7.5]

  • Give the city of publication and the publisher's name, generally taken from the title page. The state or country is not necessary.
  • Shorten the publisher's name when possible, by omitting business abbreviations such as Corp. and words such as Books and Publishers.
  • For publisher's names that are personal names, use the surname only, e.g., for John Wiley, use Wiley.
  • For university presses, use U for University and P for Press, e.g., Princeton UP.

One Author [5.5.2]

  • Write the author's name as Last Name, First Name.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999. Print.

Two or More Authors [5.5.4]

  • List the names in the order they appear on the title page, with commas between authors, and a period after the last author's name.
  • Only the name of the first author should be reversed (Last Name, First Name); the other name(s) should be written in regular order.
  • For more than three authors, either give only the first author and add et al., or give all the names.

King, Samuel P., and Randall W. Roth. Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, and Political Manipulation at America's Largest Charitable Trust. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 2006. Print.

Laverty, Melina F., Eleanor J. Sterling, Amelia Chiles, and Georgina Cullman. Biodiversity 101. Westport: Greenwood, 2008. Print.

Editors, Compilers, Translators [5.5.4]

If the persons named on the title page are editors, compilers, or translators, add a comma and a descriptive label, e.g., eds., comps., trans.

Lucas, John S., and Paul C. Southgate, eds. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. Print.

Corporate Author [5.5.5]

Cite a book by corporate author when a group -- such as an organization, committee, or association -- rather than individual persons, is the author. Cite the corporate author even if this group is also the publisher.

American Welding Society Committee on High-Energy Beam Welding and Cutting. Process Specification and Operator Qualification for Laser Beam Welding. Miami: American Welding Society, 2008. Print.

Government Publications [5.5.20]

Generally, give the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.

State of Hawaii. Dept. of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. Visitors Research Report. Honolulu: DBEDT, 2007. Print.

Edition [5.5.13]

If a book is identified as being other than the first edition (e.g., 2nd edition, Revised edition), give the edition just before the publication information.

Gralla, Preston. How Wireless Works. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Que, 2006. Print.

Work in an Anthology [5.5.6]

When citing an essay, short story, or other work that is contained in an anthology or other book collection, provide information about both the piece and the complete book. Provide the name of the editor or compiler of the book, preceded by Ed. or Comp., after the title of the book. Give the page numbers of the piece, writing only the last two digits of the second number unless more are needed, e.g., 125-29, but 185-202.

Author of Story. "Title of Story." Title of Book. Editor. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.

Humphries, LaJean. "How to Evaluate a Web Site." Web of Deception: Misinformation on the Internet. Ed. Anne P. Mintz. Medford: CyberAge, 2002. 165-73. Print.

Book in a Series [5.5.15]

If the title page or other introductory pages indicate that the book is part of a series, give the series name and the series number, if any, at the end of the entry. Abbreviations may be used, including Ser. for series.

Smith, Erik L. "Fighting to Regain Custody of My Son." Adoption. Ed. David M. Haugen and Matthew J. Box. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2006. 36-40. Print. Social Issues Firsthand.

Encyclopedias and Reference Books [5.5.7]

  • Cite an article in an encyclopedia like a work in an anthology, above.
  • When citing familiar reference books, especially those that appear often in new editions, full publication information is not necessary.
  • If articles are arranged alphabetically, volume and page numbers are not necessary.
  • Give the edition (if available) and the year of publication.

Pelley, Patricia M. "Vietnam." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. 2008. Print.

  • When citing less familiar or specialized reference books, give full publication information, omitting page numbers if articles are arranged alphabetically.

Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Reference Book. Editor. Vol. number (if any). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.

Butwell, Richard. "Vietnam." Lands and Peoples. Vol. 2. Danbury: Grolier, 2001. 293-302. Print.

  • Providing the number of volumes for multi-volume sets is optional. [5.5.14]

Jamieson, Neil. L. "Vietnamese." Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. David Levinson and Karen Christenson. Vol. 6. New York: Scribner's, 2002. Print. 6 vols.

Two or More Works by the Same Author(s) [5.3.4]

When citing two or more sources by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. For the next entries, type three hyphens, add a period, and skip a space (---. ) then give the title. The three hyphens stand for the name(s) in the preceding entry.

Scott, Susan. Exploring Hanauma Bay. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1993. Print.

---. Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1991. Print.


PERIODICALS [5.4]


Magazine Articles [5.4.6]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Type of Material.

Author

  • Refer to the guidelines for Authors for books, above.
  • If no author's name is given for an article, begin with the title of the article.

"Tweet Liberty." Sports Illustrated 30 Mar. 2009: 18. Print.

Date

  • For magazines issued every week or every two weeks, give the complete date in this order: Day Month Year, e.g., 21 Jan. 2009. Abbreviate the months (except May, June, July).
  • For magazines issued monthly or bi-monthly, give the month(s) and year.

Kelley, Raina. "Octomom Hypocrisy." Newsweek 16 Mar. 2009: 58. Print.

Reynolds, Kim. "Body Doubles." Motor Trend May 2009: 52-60. Print.

Volume and Issue Numbers

  • Do not give volume and issue numbers for magazine articles.
    (Volume and issue numbers, are given for scholarly journal articles, however. See below.)

Page Number(s)

  • If the article is on consecutive pages, specify the page numbers of the entire article, e.g., 16-20. Give just the last two digits of the second number, when possible, e.g. 188-89, but 196-200.
  • If the article is not on consecutive pages -- for example, it begins on page 27, then skips to page 30, and continues on page 32 -- write only the first page number, followed by a plus sign: 27+.

Estroff, Sharon Duke. "I Was an Undercover Penguin." Good Housekeeping Feb. 2009: 99+. Print.


Scholarly Journal Articles [5.4.2]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Type of Material.

Author

Refer to the guidelines for Authors when citing books, above.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Write the volume number, a period, then the issue number, e.g. for volume 22, issue 4:   22.4

Page Numbers

Specify the page numbers of the entire article, giving only the last two digits of the second number unless more are needed, e.g., 480-95, but 480-502. If an article is not on consecutive pages, give only the first page number followed by a plus sign: 480+.

Baskin, Yvonne. "Sea Sickness: The Upsurge in Marine Diseases." Bioscience 56.6 (2006): 464-69. Print.

Davis, William D., Thomas Cleary, Michelle Donnelly, and Samuel Hellerman. "Using Sensor Signals to Analyze Fires." Fire Technology 39.4 (2003): 295-308. Print.


Newspaper Articles. [5.4.5]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Type of Material.

Title of Newspaper

  • Write the title as it appears on the masthead, omitting any introductory article: Honolulu Advertiser, not The Honolulu Advertiser.
  • If the city of publication of a local newspaper is not part of the title, give it in square brackets, e.g., News and Observer [Raleigh]. The city of publication is not necessary for nationally published newspapers, e.g., Wall Street Journal.

Date and Edition

  • Give the date in this order: Day Month Year, e.g., 31 Aug. 2008. Abbreviate the months (except May, June, July).
  • If an edition is specified on the masthead, add it after the date.

Volume, Issue, and Page Number(s)

  • If the article is not on consecutive pages, write only the first page number, followed by a plus sign: A1+.
  • Do not give volume and issue numbers for newspaper articles.

Boylan, Peter. "Man Pleads Guilty to Fraud." Honolulu Advertiser 17 Apr. 2009, home final ed.: B1+. Print.

Dreazen, Yochi J., and Loretta Chao. "U.S. Asks China to Account for Tiananmen." Wall Street Journal 4 June 2009: A8. Print.

Kalani, Nanea. "Stimulus Money for Technology Available, Could Be Hard to Get." Pacific Business News [Honolulu] 5 June 2009: 4. Print.

Editorials [5.4.10]

Follow the format for articles, and add the term Editorial after the article title.

"Don't Block Preschool Funds." Editorial. Honolulu Star Bulletin 13 Apr. 2009: 20. Print.

WEB [5.6]


Web Sites [5.6.2]

When citing web sites, include the author, title, and publication information as for print sources (see above), and add the date of access, because web pages are often updated or moved. All components in the format below may not be identifiable for a web site; include as much as is available.

Author. "Title of the Web Page." Title of the Overall Web Site. Version or Edition. Publisher or Sponsor, Date. Web. Date of Access.

Author

Refer to the guidelines for Authors when citing books, above.

Title

Write the title of the web page in italics if it is independent or shares the same name as the overall web site.

Publisher or Sponsor of the Web Site

If none is indicated, use N.p.

Date

If a complete date is given, write it in the order: Day Month Year. If no publication date is indicated, write n.d.

Altonn, Helen. "Marine Team Sounds Alarm for Reefs." StarBulletin.com. Star Bulletin, 29 Aug. 2008. Web. 17 June 2009.

"Hawaii Drunk Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert. KeRo, 2009. Web. 17 Mar. 2009.

Holahan, Catherine. "Eddie Bauer Files for Bankruptcy." MSN Money. Microsoft, 17 June 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.

Landau, Elizabeth. "CDC: Swine Flu Viruses in U.S. and Mexico Match." CNN Health.com. Cable News Network, 25 Apr. 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.

Lehrman, Lewis E. Lincoln at Peoria. Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. 17 June 2009.

The URL of the web site is optional. Provide the URL if the site is difficult to find, or if the instructor requires it. Write the URL at the end of the entry, enclosed in angle brackets. If the URL must be divided between lines, break it after a slash.

"The Norwegian Pirate Whaling Fleet." Sea Shepherd. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.
<http://www.seashepherd.org/whales/norway.html>.


Library Subscription Services [5.6.4]

Honolulu Community College (HCC) Library subscribes to services that provide full-text of publications on the Web. Works Cited entries for these publications should include information about the original print materials (using the formats above), plus information identifying the online database and the date of access. The name of the database is very important for retrieving the publication. The access date should be specified because online content changes constantly.

Articles on the web may not have page numbers; when page numbers are not given, write n.pag.

Magazine Articles

Refer to the format for Magazine Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Britt, Phillip. "Taking the Byte Out of Cybercrime." Information Today Dec. 2008: 1+. General OneFile. Web. 8 June 2009.

Shapiro, Bruce. "The Executioner's Last Song." Nation 13 Apr. 2009: 5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 June 2009.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Refer to the format for Scholarly Journal Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Pickett, William, Ronald J. Iannotti, Bruce Simons-Morton, and Suzanne Dostaler. "Social Environments and Physical Aggression Among 21,107 Students in the United States and Canada." Journal of School Health 79.4 (2009): 160-68. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 8 June 2009.

Newspaper Articles

Refer to the format for Newspaper Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Lowy, Joan. "High Gas Prices Drive Down Traffic Fatalities." Washington Times 25 Aug. 2008: n. pag. SIRS Researcher. Web. 8 June 2009.

Electronic Books

Refer to the format for Books in print, above.

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Kawamura, Yuniya. Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies. Oxford: Berg, 2005. ebrary. Web. 8 June 2009.

OTHER


Television Broadcast [5.7.1]

"Title of Episode." (if available) Title of Program. Responsible Person(s). Name of Network. Call letters of local station (if any), City, Broadcast Date. Television.

"The Graying of Hawaii." Insights on PBS Hawaii. Prod. Mark Delorme and Audrey Kubota. PBS. KHET, Honolulu, 18 June 2009. Television.

"A Vow of Silence." Forensic Files. Narr. Peter Thomas. Prod. Stephanie Kovac. TruTV. 14 June 2009. Television.

Videorecording [5.7.3]

Title of Video. Director's Name. (and/or other Responsible Person(s)) Distributor, Year. Type of Media.

Mardi Gras: Made in China. Dir. David Redmon. Carnivalesque Films, 2008. DVD.

Picasso. Commentary by Waldemar Januszczak. Dir. Didier Baussy. Home Vision, 1985. Videocassette.

Interview Conducted By the Student [5.7.7]

Name of Person Interviewed. Type of interview. (Personal or Telephone) Date.

Kato, Ken. Personal interview. 11 Apr. 2009.




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